Aqeedah of Ash'arism
Speculative theology and symbolism is favored by the Ash'arites when it comes to the Attributes of Allah. They see taking His attributes literally as comparing it to the creation (Tashbih).
Because the Ash'aris reject the concept of taking Allah's Attributes literally, they declare anyone who takes His attributes literally as Mushabih, ie an anthropomorphist: one who attributes human characteristics to Allah.
Within Ash'arism it is a heinous act to give Allah's Attributes the literal meaning, because they see this as anthropomorphism.
Ash'aris on the Attributes of Allah
Within Ash'arism it is a foundation to leave the Attributes of Allah meaningless or to interpret them figuratively.
For example: His Hand is understood as an Attribute whose meaning is not literally a hand. Or His Istiwa (resurrection) is interpreted as high in power.
The Essential Attributes of Allah
The Essential Attributes of Allah is called 'Sifaat Dhaatiyyah' in Arabic. Here is where the Ash'arites often omit the meaning of rather than interpreting it figuratively.
Within Ash'arism, Attributes such as: Hands, Eyes, Fingers or Feet are figuratively interpreted or left out in a literal sense in the hope of being closer to Sunnism, while Sunnism goes against this belief of Ash'arism.
The Attributes of Allah in Deeds
This form of Attributes is called "Sifaat Fi'liyyah" in Arabic. Ash'aris often tend to interpret this form of Attributes figuratively.
Creed of Ash'aris on His Deeds:
Attributes such as the Descent (Nuzoul), Resurrection (Istiwa), Speech and others are interpreted symbolically.
What Ash'aris say about this:
"Speech is not literal speech, but a symbolic communication that Allah has with His creation."
"Nuzool is not understood as a literal descent of Allah, but rather it means that His Mercy and Angels descend."
"Istiwa does not mean a literal elevation, because Allah does not move. Rather, it means that He is separate from His creation by being the most High."
Ash'arism and the Quran
Ash'arism claims that the Quran that we see on earth is not the Speech of Allah, but rather a quotation of the real Quran which is with Allah.
Ash'aris believe that Allah Speaks without letters or sound. Because of this, they do not believe that the Quran is the true Speech of Allah.
Ash'arism and the concept of Iman
The Ash'arites believe that Iman (belief) is only believing in the heart. This is in line with what the Murjiah believe on the matter of Iman.
Among the Murjiah are those who believe that Iman is in the heart and on the tongue (rather than just in the heart). So believing and accepting Islam is enough for the Ash'arites to be seen as believers by Allah.